Regular use of mosquito nets
Use of fans at full speed
Use of full sleeves and trousers to cover the hand, legs during sleeping
Use of Mosquito repellent oils
Use of window screen, mosquito nets to cover doors and windows.
Use of mosquito repellent coils and liquids
Destruction of Larva/Anti-larval measures-
Use of Paris green :
Paris green is most commonly used for larval control
1% Paris green is prepared by combining with road dust, ash powder, talc powder or charcoal powder.
Dusting method of application is done on surface water
The larva feeds on the Paris green and die
Paris green can be applied to paddy fields, slow running streams.
Use of OIL-based larvicide’s :
Application of petroleum or its product for killing larvae and pupae
Oil when sprayed on the water surface, reduces the surface tension of water and forms a film which prevents larvae and pupae from coming to the surface of the water from breathing leading to suffocation and leads to death
Soap solution is used as an emulsifier for preventing the separation of oil and water.
The advantage of oil usage is that both the larvae and pupae of mosquito are killed.
The disadvantages of oil usage –
Repeated usage may hinder the vegetation growth
Cannot be used on drinking water sources
Small fishes in the water may be killed
Strong winds can break the oil film
Destruction of Adult Mosquitoes :
This method is mostly used in house hold for killing adult mosquitos
Spraying on a systematic scale should be started before commencement of mosquito breeding and continued throught the malaria transmission season.
Pyrethrum spray :
Pyrethrum prepared from dried flowers of Pyrethrum cinerarifolium plant
Pyrethrum extract prepared by distillation to give 1% or 2% extract
Mosquitoes get irritated and when the come into contact with suspended pyrethrum extract the respiratory spiracles are clogged and they die due to suffocation immediate
Pyrethrum has got immediate killing action or Knock-down effect
DDT/ Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichlorethane :
Chlorinated hydrocarbon discovered in 1874 by German scientist Ziedler
It is a crystalline coarse white powder with a pleasant apple like smell
It is a neurotoxic /nerve poison affecting the nervous system and has residual effect of up to 8 to 10 weeks
It is not harmful to humans if carefully handled
Drug Prophylaxis :
Drugs like plasmoquine can destroy gametocyte of Plasmodium
Mass drug prophylaxis is used to protect from clinical manifestations of the disease
Plaudrine can be taken weekly once for prophylactic treatment while staying in endemic areas of malaria.
Natural methods of controlling Mosquitoes:
Chemical methods –
These methods are done to prevent breeding of mosquitoes
Altering the pH of the water by addition of organic substances
Fouling clean water by polluting it will sewage and industrial waste water
Increasing the salinity of water by adding sea water into fresh water
Physical methods –
Removing aquatic vegetation and allowing free water flow
Use of herbal plants which will eliminate breeding of mosquitoes
Using intermittent irrigation, so that water logging is prevented
Use of Larvivorous fishes which feed on mosquito larvae
Larvivorous fishes are used to control breeding of mosquitoes in wells and fresh waters
Gambusia affinis, is a good Larvivorous fish with the following features -
It has a quick movement and can escape from its enemies
It is a small fish which does not grow to a big size
It has not edible value
It can thrive and acclimatized to any type of water
It reproduces and multiplies in large numbers